Energy transition urgently needs to overcome a number of technical bottlenecks
April 27, by the CEC and the State Grid Co., Ltd. and other co-sponsored the first session of the Power Enterprise Science and Technology Innovation Conference held in Beijing. News reporter learned at the meeting, at present, China's energy and electricity industry development planning fast, transformation and development of a steady pace, renewable energy installed capacity is increasing. In addition, China's current stage is still dominated by non-renewable energy transactions and the future power supply system many access to new energy technologies, for energy and electricity transformation and upgrading challenges, but also need a variety of independent innovation to continue to boost.
■■ New energy projects are growing by leaps and bounds
Energy Bureau senior engineer to the sea flat with a set of data information detailed in our country in recent years in the power security production price stability capacity and cui green low-carbon development and other aspects of the "achievement table": by the end of 2022, in China's power project installed capacity of more than 2.56 billion kilowatt hours, power generation capacity of 8.8 trillion kilowatt hours, are ranked The world's first. In the past decade, in China's fossil energy trading ratio increased by 7.8%, in which the installed share of fossil energy production power generation in 2022 49.6%, especially the rapid development of wind power, solar power stations, the first annual power generation capacity of more than 1 trillion kilowatt hours, equivalent to 10 Three Gorges power station power generation capacity.
Implemented to new energy projects, in China's wind power generation, solar power generation installed capacity ranks first in the world. "In 2021, wind power generation installed capacity of about 330 million kilowatt hours, generating 652.6 billion kilowatts, occupancy rate of 7.7%; solar power generation installed capacity of 310 million kilowatt hours, generating capacity occupancy rate of 3.8%, wind and light total power generation occupancy rate of 11.5%." Chinese Academy of Sciences academician Tang Guangfu stressed that the development of new energy in China fast space is large, but the relative value is relatively low.
Tang Guangfu further analysis, from the hydropower project and nuclear power plants, the basic hydropower development amounted to 690 million kilowatt hours, the installed volume of 350 million kilowatt hours, about 14.9% of the total installed in China, the proportion of power generation is 7%; nuclear power plants total installed volume of 53 million kilowatt hours, accounting for about 2.2% of the world's total installed.
"At this stage, the installed volume of energy storage in China reaches 460 billion kilowatts, accounting for 22% of the world's total installed capacity, in which the proportion of installed organic chemical energy storage is 12.5%; hydrogen energy production ranks first in the country, but the share of green hydrogen is still relatively low, in which natural gas and coal hydrogen accounts for 80%. It is predicted that in 2030, the consumption end ratio of hydrogen energy will be more than 5% and do 10% in 2050." Tang Guangfu detailed.
News reporter also learned that at this stage, China has completed across the items, across the north and south, throughout the country, connecting the nearby countries of energy infrastructure transport Internet, "eight horizontal and eight vertical" level of more than 300 million kilowatt hours, 1.6 times higher than in 2012.
■■ Transformation and development still face a variety of tests
According to the current production and consumption of non-renewable energy in China, Tang Guangfu stressed the need to fully recognize the reality that non-renewable energy is still the main force of consumption. He pointed out that in China's energy structure transformation is also facing several tests, "first, how to stimulate coal carbon pockets to protect the efficacy. 2060 in China's coal-based installed capacity of roughly 700 million kilowatt hours, this part of the generating units how to become a new type of coordination capacity generating units is a big problem; second, to search and develop and design gas strategic succession network resources, China at this stage in the Unconventional oil and gas development design, deep water well machinery and equipment, key technology and its water oil and gas development related technology level still has a short board."
Lv Qinggang, deputy director of the Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, also believes that the transformation of the energy structure should mainly take into account the renewable resources many access after the system software required for the handy peaking network resources. "The contradiction of regulating renewable resources uncertainty long-term stability requirements is the main subject of research, must be peaking switching power support points, the two technical directions at this stage is usually energy storage and coal-chemical coordination capacity peaking."
Lv Qinggang further pointed out that at this stage, China's physical energy storage and mechanical energy storage level has been comparable to international technicality, the future should vigorously promote the scale, medium and long-term, efficient, low-cost energy storage technicality. "But at the same time, energy storage can not completely deal with the existing peaking problem. In the future, many renewable energy access after the system coal power unit peaking regulations will be very harsh, so the coal-based peaking update will also face safety, economic and efficiency issues."
■■ Continuously explore the potential of technological innovation
In the energy structure transformation trend, power companies are further tapping the potential of high-tech innovation.
According to the detailed introduction to Haiping, in China's new technology application innovation mode industry innovation gradually cultivate and grow, popular energy storage technicality overall to do the world advanced level, photoelectric catalytic energy storage, compressed gas energy storage technicality into the commercialization of the demonstration link. Virtual power plant, intelligent electricity website and other kinds of new technology application, innovation mode, business model innovation constantly keep emerging, the new energy industry development trend caused profound impact.
According to statistics, for the negative impact of many access to new energy technology, flexible DC and DC power grid is to promote new energy technology friendly access, service projects to build a new power system core technology.
"New energy technology serendipity, uncertainty, and grid load characteristics are not consistent, its access to the grid not end will make the grid spherical grid lack, coupled with the converter to withstand the low level, but also cause system software oscillation and prone to chain join off-grid. While the flexible straight grid voltage is relatively highly controllable, can independently create a smooth working voltage and move the core of the grid to the new energy parallel network. Together with its cost-effective transient process, access to a wide range of coverage, the characteristics of the larger scale of commissioning, can be different kinds of power energy and different regions of the economic sharing of generating units complement each other." Zhang Yong, deputy director of the UHV transmission work department of China's power grid enterprises, expressed.
In the State Ministry of Science and Technology former director Zhang Jingan looks, the current stage of the digital wave is driving the power companies to accelerate the strategic transformation of enterprises.
"Along with the rapid development of data grid, power equipment encountered rapid and accurate instant response, diverse data pre-processing, safe and reliable transmission of data, diversified business linkage and other tests. And with the new power system to speed up the construction, more and more power engineering terminal equipment deployed to the external open conditions, power supply system network information security boundaries slowly blurred, equipment working environment harsh, complete to higher than the processing chip endogenous security weapons security prevention, will certainly become the key development trend of power engineering industrial control equipment weaponry regulations." Southern region power grid enterprise data group chairman Zhao Shaohua stressed that in the future of digital, intelligent, intelligent new power system, processing chip is the important medium of bearing the data grid count rate, optimization algorithm, count block, will become the basic construction operation data grid key where basic.
"Southern region power grid company at this stage has successfully developed the first suite of processing chip-based relay protection and the first nationwide production of electric power engineering special chip, produce electric power engineering special chip 'independent innovation architecture design - high efficiency integration - independent optimization algorithm - safe and controllable' original technology chain system. In the applicable electric collar city, according to the 'Fuxi's' processing chip to develop the nationwide production of distribution automation terminal equipment, collector, intelligent switch panel and other equipment, can suspend the device to complete immediate/non-immediate multi-industry collaborative operation, core-level error recognition detection and network redundancy." Zhao Shaohua said.